Actualités

Stand Your Ground Law States Map
1 décembre 2022

At the state level, shooting-first laws have been associated with a significant increase in gun deaths, including unintentional deaths: 6-7% more firearm deaths occurred in suburban districts.10Abdul Munasib, Genti Kostandini, and Jeffrey L. Jordan, “Impact of Stand-Your Land Law on Gun Deaths: Evidence for a Rural Urban Dichotomy,” European Journal of Law and Economics 45, No. 3 (June 2018): 527–54, doi.org/10.1007/s10657-018-9581-z. and 8% more firearm deaths occurred in urban counties in states that passed these laws.11Cassandra Crifasi et al., “Correction to: Link Between Firearms Laws and Murder in Urban Counties,” Journal of Urban Health 95, No. 5 (October 15, 2018): 773-76, doi.org/10.1007/s11524-018-0306-y; Cassandra K. Crifasi et al., « Association entre les lois sur les armes à feu et l’homicide dans les comtés urbains », Journal of Urban Health 95, n ° 3 (2018): 383-90, doi.org/10.1007/s11524-018-0273-3. Shoot First-Gesetze wurden auch mit einer Zunahme von nicht tödlichen Schusswaffenverletzungen in Verbindung gebracht, was zu Notaufnahmen und Krankenhausaufenthalten führte.12Chandler McClellan und Erdal Tekin, « Stand Your Ground Laws, Homicides, and Injury », Journal of Human Resources 52, Nr. 3 (2017): 621-53, doi.org/10.3368/jhr.52.3.0613-5723R2; Justin Lee et al., « Guns and States: Pediatric Firearm Injury », Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 75, Nr. 1 (Juli 2013): 50-53, doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e3182999b7a. The distortion of the self-defense law in the United States began in 2005 when the National Rifle Association (NRA) helped draft and pass shooting-first laws in Florida to make the purchase and use of firearms more attractive.3Giffords Law Center and SPLC Action Fund, “`Stand Your Ground` Kills: How These NRA-Backed Laws Promote Racist Violence,” July 2020, bit.ly/38tkOJB. Later, the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), backed by the gun lobby, adopted the Florida legislation as a model for expanding the scope of the law.4Calvin Sloan, “ALEC: The Hidden Player Behind `Stand Your Ground` Laws,” People For the American Way, March 21, 2012, bit.ly/2WD4YXo; Chris Brown, “Marion Hammer: The NRA Lobbyist Behind Florida`s Stand Your Ground Legislation,” Media Matters for America, March 22, 2012, bit.ly/3pef7pD. Today, the NRA and ALEC have successfully promoted Shoot First legislation and enacted it in 29 states.5 Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wyoming.

3. Paragraph 1 shall not apply where force is used or threatened by another person for the purpose of doing something that he or she is legally required or entitled to do in the course of law enforcement or enforcement, unless the person who commits the act constituting the offence has reasonable grounds to believe that the other person is acting unlawfully. ▮ Assert yourself by law (30 states plus PR) ▮ Assert yourself by court order (8 states plus CNMI) ▮ Obligation to retire except at home (MA, MD, ME, MN, NJ, NY, RI) ▮ Obligation to retire outside the home or work (CT, DE, HI, NE) ▮ Obligation to retire except in your home, your vehicle or workplace (WI, JV) ▮ Midway approach (DC) ▮ No hard and fast rule (AS, VI) There is no express provision in the laws of the Czech Republic on the stand-your-ground or castle doctrine; But there is also no obligation to retreat before an attack. [59] For a defence to be considered legitimate, it must not be “manifestly disproportionate to the manner in which the attack was committed.” [60] There are states that have laws similar to Stand Your Ground, but with significant differences from California. California does not have a specific “Stand Your Ground” law, but rather the “castle doctrine,” meaning that a person can use lethal force in their own home if they have a “well-founded fear of imminent danger or serious bodily harm.” .